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Kidney Failure

Kidney Failure: What is it, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Causes and Risk Factors and More | Singapore General Hospital

Kidney Failure - What it is

The kidneys are a pair of bean-haped organs in the back of the body. Each kidney is attached to the bladder, which is a distensible bag that collects urine. The kidneys make the urine, which flows downward through two tubes called the ureters, and collects in the bladder.  Kidneys that function normally keep in balance many things in the body by altering the composition of urine that they produce.

The kidneys:

  • control the amount of salt and water in the body.
  • get rid of many waste products of the body in the urine.
  • enable the body to form adequate blood cells by producing a substance called erythropoetin.
  • regulate and maintain the health of the bones.
  • control the acid levels in the body as well as many other minerals and salts of the body.


Given the large number of roles the kidneys play in maintaining a person's health, it is easy to see how many symptoms can develop among patients with kidney failure. The kidneys are critical for survival; without them, patients develop multiple problems. These may range from excessive fluid retention, breathlessness, sleeplessness, a poor appetite and high blood pressure.

Kidney Failure - How to prevent?

Kidney Failure - Preparing for surgery

Kidney Failure - Post-surgery care

Kidney Failure - Other Information

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