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Assoc Prof Lee Caroline

Assoc Prof Lee Caroline

​PhD, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston

National Cancer Centre Singapore

Specialty: Oncology

Sub-specialties: Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary, Genetics

Academic Appointments

  • Associate Professor


​Caroline Lee graduated with PhD from Baylor College of Medicine and did her post-doctoral training with Dr. Michael Gottesman at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health. She currently also holds joint appointments as Associate Professor at YLL School of Medicine NUS and Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School. She has more than100 peer reviewed publications and research focuses on the functional genomics of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and pharmacogenetics.

Her laboratory identified FAT10 as a novel oncogene that is over-expressed in HCC and other inflammation associated cancers. By integrating various non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs including lncRNAs, miRNAs and circRNAs) and mRNA profiles, her laboratory has developed and experimentally evaluated algorithms to identify key/nodal ncRNAs in clinically-relevant networks of differentially expressed ncRNAs-mRNA associated with differential prognosis in HCC patients are deregulate important cancer pathways to modulate patient outcomes. 

Further to that her lab is incorporating artificial intelligence to improve more of these algorithms and also interested in pharmacogenetics and developed a novel pharmacogenomics method for identifying drugs with population differentiated responses/reactions which was recently published in the Pharmacogenomics Journal and has received significant social media traction, achieving an Altmetric score of 68 and ranking top 5% of all research output scored by Altmetric (23 May 2020).


1994 - ​PhD, Baylor College of Medicine (USA)

Professional Appointments and Committee Memberships


​• 2018 SMP Outstanding Mentor Award
• AY2014/2015 Faculty Research Excellence Award.  National University of Singapore Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine
• 2011 Pioneer Award, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore
• 2006 Winner, SingHealth Foundation Investigator Excellence Award

Research Interests

Functional Genomics of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)
- Role of FAT10 in HCC
- Role of ncRNAs (lncRNAs, miRNAs, circRNAs) in HCC
Big Data Analytics incorporating Artificial Intelligence
- Predicting Disease Prognosis
- Predicting Drug Response


1. Maulana Bachtiar, Brandon Nick Sern Ooi, Jingbo Wang, Jin Yu, Tin Wee Tan, Samuel S. Chong, and Caroline G. L. Lee*. (2019) Towards Precision Medicine: Interrogating the Human Genome to Identify Drug Pathways Associated with Potentially Functional, Population-Differentiated Polymorphisms. The Pharmacogenomics Journal 1038/541397-019--0096-y.

2. Lee Jin Lim, Samuel Y.S. Wong, Feiyang Huang, Sheng Lim, Samuel Chong, London Lucien Ooi, Oi Lian Kon and Caroline G. Lee*. Roles and Regulation of Long non-coding RNAs in Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Cancer Research DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-19-0255 (2019).

3. Lee Wai Yeow, Maulana Bachtiar, Chan Siew Choo, Cheryl and Caroline G Lee*. Comprehensive Review of Hepatitis B Virus-associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma Research through Text Mining and Big Data Analytics. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2019 Apr;94(2):353-367. doi: 10.1111/brv.12457. Epub 2018

4. Cheryl CHAN, Thomas THURNHERR, Jingbo WANG, Xavier GALLART-PALAU, Siu Kwan SZE, Steve ROZEN and Caroline G. LEE. Global re-wiring of p53 transcription regulation by the hepatitis B virus X protein. Molecular Oncology 2016 10(8):1183-1195 (2016)

5. Steven Setiawan Theng, Wei Wang, Way Champ Mah, Cheryl Chan, Jingli Zhuo, Yun Gao, Haina Qin, Liangzhong Lim, Samuel S. Chong, Jianxing Song and Caroline G.L. Lee*. Disruption of FAT10-MAD2 binding inhibits Tumor Progression Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(49):E5282-5291 (2014)

Research Trials