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Prof Toh Han Chong

Prof Toh Han Chong

​BSc (London), MB BCHIR (Cambridge), MRCP (UK), FRCP (Edin), FAMS

Senior Consultant

Deputy Chief Executive Officer (Strategic Partnerships) & Senior Consultant

National Cancer Centre Singapore

Specialty: Medical Oncology, Medical Oncology

Sub-specialties: Colorectal, Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary, Upper Gastrointestinal

Conditions Treated by this Doctor:
Colorectal Cancer, Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Cancers, Oesophagus Cancer, Pancreatic Cancer, Stomach Cancer.

Clinical Appointments

  • Deputy Chief Executive Officer (Strategic Partnerships) & Senior Consultant Division of Medical Oncology National Cancer Centre SingaporeNational Cancer Centre Singapore

Academic Appointments

  • Professor


Dr Toh is Senior Consultant and Deputy Chief Executive Officer (Strategic Partnerships), Division of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Centre Singapore. He graduated from the University of London, UK with an intercalated Bachelor of Science in ‘Infection and Immunity’ from St Mary’s Hospital Medical School and qualified as a medical doctor from University of Cambridge, UK. Dr Toh obtained his Fellowship of the Royal College of Physicians in 2003. He received his medical oncology fellowship training at the Singapore General Hospital, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston USA, and at the Center for Cell and Gene Therapy, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA. Dr Toh is alumni at the Harvard Business School General Management Program. He is a recipient of National Senior Clinician Scientist Award in 2017 and National Medical Excellence Award (NMEA) in 2018 for his pioneering work in cell and immunotherapy for cancer. Dr Toh leads the NMRC LCG VICTORY (Virus-Induced Cancers Translational Oncology and immunologY) grant.

Dr Toh is a Professor and College Master at the Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School. He is founder chairman of the Singapore Society of Oncology Cancer Immunotherapy Consortium, co-founder of the Asia Pacific Gastroenterology Cancer Summit (APGCS), and faculty in Cancer Immunology for the European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO). Dr Toh has published over 132 peer review journal papers to date.


  •  2014 The Academia @ Singhealth SG- GCP Course
  •  2013 Harvard Business School 15th General Management Program
  •  2003 Fellowship of the Royal College of Physicians, Edinburgh. – FRCP
  •  1994 Membership of the Royal College of Physicians, UK. - MRCP
  •  1990 University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, UK. - MBBChir
  •  1987 Wright-Fleming Institute, St Mary’s Hospital Medical School, University of London, UK - Intercalated BSc in Infection & Immunity (Upper Second Class Honours)
  • 1986 Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine, University of London, UK Preclinical Course

Professional Appointments and Committee Memberships

  • Current: Faculty, Singhealth Duke-NUS Global Health Institute, Duke-NUS Medical School
  • Current: Governance board, KKH Children’s Blood and Cancer Centre
  • 2021-Current: Faculty, Duke-NUS Masters in Immunology & Translational Medicine Program, Duke-NUS Medical School
  • 2021-Current: Joy At Work Committee, SingHealth Duke-NUS
  • 2020-Current: Advisor, Oncology SIG (Student Interest Group), Duke-NUS Medical School
  • 2020-Current: Principal Lead, Cancer Immunotherapy, SingHealth Duke-NUS Cell Therapy Centre
  • 2020-Current: Member, Technical Expert Advisory Board for Cell and Gene Therapy, Ministry of Health, Singapore
  • 2020-Current: Consultant, Tessa Therapeutics Ltd
  • 2019-Current: Deputy Chief Executive Officer (Strategic Partnerships), National Cancer Centre Singapore
  • 2019-Current Agency for Care Effectiveness (ACE), MOH, Council Member
  • 2019-Current: Medical Student Admissions Committee, Duke-NUS Medical School
  • 2019-Current: Adjunct Principal Investigator, Singapore Immunology Network, A*STAR
  • 2016-2020: Co-Founder & Chief Medical Officer, Tessa Therapeutics Ltd
  • 2016-Current: Member, European Society of Medical Oncology
  • 2015-Current: Pharmacy Residents Selection Committee (PRSC), Ministry of Health, Singapore
  • 2014-Current: Adjunct Principal Investigator, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, A*STAR
  • 2014-Current: Member, American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • 2013-2019: Vice Chairman, Oncology ACP for Education
  • 2013-2019: Deputy Director (Education), National Cancer Centre Singapore
  • 2011-Current: Associate Professor, Cancer & Stem Cell Biology Program, Duke-NUS Medical School
  • 2010-Current: College Master for Eugene Stead College, Duke-NUS Medical School
  • 2009-2013: Head, Division of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Centre Singapore   
  • 2004-Current: Senior Consultant, Division of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Centre, Singapore
  • 2004-Current: Clinical Senior Lecturer, YLLSOM, NUS
  • 2004-2007: Chairman, Chapter of Oncology, Singapore College of Physicians
  • 2004-2011: Editor, Singapore Medical Association News
  • 2004-2006: President, Singapore Society of Oncology
  • 2003-Fellow: Royal College of Medicine, Edinburgh
  • 2003-Current: Fellow, Academy of Medicine, Singapore
  • 2001-2004: Consultant, Division of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Centre, Singapore
  • 2000-2001: Associate Consultant, Division of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Centre, Singapore
  • 1999-Current: Principal Investigator, Laboratory of Cell Therapy and Cancer Vaccine, Division of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Centre Singapore
  • 1999-2000: Research Fellow, Centre for Cell and Gene Therapy, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States
  • 1998-2000: Senior Registrar, Department of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Centre, Singapore
  • 1997-1999: Clinical and Clinical Research Fellow, Division of Haematology-Oncology and Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Centre, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
  • 1995-1997: Fellow / Registrar, Department of Medical Oncology, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore
  • 1992-1995: Resident in Internal Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine, Cardiology and Accident & Emergency, Tan Tock Seng Hospital and Alexandra Hospital, Singapore
  • 1991-1992: Singapore Armed Forces Medical Corp. National Service Military Medical Officer (Captain). Reservist Infantry Medical Officer in 67 Guards Battalion, Singapore
  • 1990-1991: House Officer, Departments of Medicine, Surgery and Paediatrics, National University Hospital, Singapore


  • 2018 National Outstanding Clinician Scientist Award, National Medical Excellence Award (NMEA), Singapore
  • 2017 Senior Clinician Scientist Award, National Medical Research Council, Singapore
  • 2016 Duke-SingHealth AM-ETHOS Mentoring Award to Duke University Health System
  • 2009 Clinician Scientist Award, National Medical Research Council, Singapore
  • 2008 Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School Best Teacher Award (Molecules and Cells)
  • 2004 National Excellent Service Award (Star Award)
  • 1999- 2000 Singapore Cancer Society Overseas Fellowship Award.
  • 1998-1999 Singapore General Hospital Fellowship Award.
  • 1997-1998 Singapore Health Manpower Development Plan Fellowship Award.
  • 1981-1983 United World College Scholarship, to the Lester B. Pearson College of the Pacific, British Columbia, Canada to read for the International Baccalaureate.

Research Interests

  • Cancer immunology and immunotherapy for solid tumours, especially virus-driven cancers like hepatitis B+ hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and EBV+ nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). Cell therapeutics development, Basic and translational biology of virus-driven cancers like HCC and NPC.


• *Shuting Han, Joshua K. Tay, Celestine Jia Ling Loh, Axel Jun Ming Chu, Joe Poh Sheng Yeong, Chwee Ming Lim, Toh HC. Epstein–Barr Virus Epithelial Cancers-A Comprehensive Understanding to Drive Novel Therapies. Front Immunol. 2021 Dec ; 10;12:734293. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.734293.

• *Tai D, Loke K, Gogna A, Kaya NA, Tan SH, Hennedige T, Ng D, Irani F, Lee J, Lim JQ, Too CW, Ng MCH, Tham CK, Lam J, Koo SL, Chong HS, Goh GB, Huang HL, Venkatanarasimha N, Lo R, Chow PKH, Goh BKP, Chung A, Toh HC, Thng CH, Lim TKH, Yeong J, Zhai W, Chan CY, Choo SP. Radioembolisation with Y90-resin microspheres followed by nivolumab for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (CA 209-678): a single arm, single centre, phase 2 trial. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2021 Dec;6(12):1025-1035. doi: 10.1016/S2468-1253(21)00305-8. Epub 2021 Oct 23. PMID: 34695377

• *Zhao Y, Wang J, Liu WN, Fong SY, Shuen TWH, Liu M, Harden S, Tan SY, Cheng JY, Tan WWS, Chan JKY, Chee CE, Lee GH, Toh HC, Lim SG, Wan Y, Chen Q. Analysis and Validation of Human Targets and Treatments Using a Hepatocellular Carcinoma-Immune Humanized Mouse Model. Hepatology. 2021 Sep;74(3):1395-1410. doi: 10.1002/hep.31812. PMID: 33738839.

• *Wang G, Mudgal P, Wang L, Shuen TWH, Wu H, Alexander PB, Wang WW, Wan Y, Toh HC^, Wang XF, Li QJ. TCR repertoire characteristics predict clinical response to adoptive CTL therapy against nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Oncoimmunology. 2021 Aug 2;10(1):1955545. doi: 10.1080/2162402X.2021.1955545. PMID: 34377592; PMCID: PMC8331028. (^senior and co-corresponding author)

• *Tay RE, Richardson EK, Toh HC. Revisiting the role of CD4+ T cells in cancer immunotherapy-new insights into old paradigms. Cancer Gene Ther. 2021 Feb;28(1-2):5-17. doi: 10.1038/s41417-020-0183-x. Epub 2020 May 27. PMID: 32457487; PMCID: PMC7886651.

• *Hopkins R, Xiang W, Marlier D, Au VB, Ching Q, Wu LX, Guan R, Lee B, Chia WK, Wang WW, Wee J, Ng J, Cheong R, Han S, Chu A, Chee CL, Shuen T, Podinger M, Lezhava A,Toh HC^, Connolly JE. Monocytic Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells Underpin Resistance to Adoptive T Cell Therapy in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma. Mol Ther. 2021 Feb 3;29(2):734-743. doi: 10.1016/j.ymthe.2020.09.040. Epub 2020 Sep 30. PMID: 33038324; PMCID: PMC7854281. (^joint senior and co-corresponding author)

• *Han S, Lee SY, Wang WW, Tan YB, Sim RHZ, Cheong R, Tan C, Hopkins R, Connolly J, Shuen WH, Toh HC. A Perspective on Cell Therapy and Cancer Vaccine in Biliary Tract Cancers (BTCs). Cancers (Basel). 2020 Nov 17;12(11):3404. doi: 10.3390/cancers12113404. PMID:33212880;PMCID:PMC7698436

• *Chong YC, Toh TB, Chan Z, Lin QXX, Thng DKH, Hooi L, Ding Z, Shuen T, Toh HC, Dan YY, Bonney GK, Zhou L, Chow P, Wang Y, Benoukraf T, Chow EK, Han W. Targeted Inhibition of Purine Metabolism Is Effective in Suppressing Hepatocellular Carcinoma Progression. Hepatol Commun. 2020 Jul 27;4(9):1362-1381. doi: 10.1002/hep4.1559. PMID: 32923839; PMCID: PMC7471427.

• Segelov E, Prenen H, Day D, Macintyre CR, Foo EMJ, Ali R, Wang Q, Wei X, Lopes GL Jr, Ding K, Chen G, Chia JWK, Toh HC; ASCOLT Investigators. Impact of the COVID-19 Epidemic on a Pan-Asian Academic Oncology Clinical Trial. JCO Glob Oncol. 2020 Apr;6:585-588. doi: 10.1200/GO.20.00072.PMID:32293940;PMCID:PMC7193776.

• *Finn RS, Qin S, Ikeda M, Galle PR, Ducreux M, Kim TY, Kudo M, Breder V, Merle P, Kaseb AO, Li D, Verret W, Xu DZ, Hernandez S, Liu J, Huang C, Mulla S, Wang Y, Lim HY, Zhu AX, Cheng AL; IMbrave150 Investigators including Toh HC. Atezolizumab plus Bevacizumab in Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 2020 May 14;382(20):1894-1905. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1915745.PMID:32402160.

• *Ding Z, Ericksen RE, Escande-Beillard N, Lee QY, Loh A, Denil S, Steckel M, Haegebarth A, Wai Ho TS, Chow P, Toh HC, Reversade B, Gruenewald S, Han W. Metabolic pathway analyses identify proline biosynthesis pathway as a promoter of liver tumorigenesis. J Hepatol. 2020 Apr;72(4):725-735. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2019.10.026. Epub 2019 Nov 11. PMID: 31726117.

• *Ericksen RE, Lim SL, McDonnell E, Shuen WH, Vadiveloo M, White PJ, Ding Z, Kwok R, Lee P, Radda GK, Toh HC, Hirschey MD, Han W. Loss of BCAA Catabolism during Carcinogenesis Enhances mTORC1 Activity and Promotes Tumor Development and Progression. Cell Metab. 2019 May 7;29(5):1151-1165.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2018.12.020. Epub 2019 Jan 17. PMID: 30661928;PMCID:PMC6506390.

• *Lim CJ, Lee YH, Pan L, Lai L, Chua C, Wasser M, Lim TKH, Yeong J, Toh HC, Lee SY, Chan CY, Goh BK, Chung A, Heikenwälder M, Ng IO, Chow P, Albani S, Chew V. Multidimensional analyses reveal distinct immune microenvironment in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma. Gut. 2019 May;68(5):916-927. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2018-316510. Epub 2018 Jul 3. PMID:29970455.

• *Zhao Y, Shuen TWH, Toh TB, Chan XY, Liu M, Tan SY, Fan Y, Yang H, Lyer SG, Bonney GK, Loh E, Chang KTE, Tan TC, Zhai W, Chan JKY, Chow EK, Chee CE, Lee GH, Dan YY, Chow PK, Toh HC, Lim SG, Chen Q. Development of a new patient-derived xenograft humanised mouse model to study human-specific tumour microenvironment and immunotherapy. Gut. 2018 Oct;67(10):1845-1854. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2017-315201. Epub 2018 Mar 30. PMID: 29602780;PMCID:PMC6145285.
• *Enane FO, Shuen WH, Gu X, Quteba E, Przychodzen B, Makishima H, Bodo J, Ng J, Chee CL, Ba R, Seng Koh L, Lim J, Cheong R, Teo M, Hu Z, Ng KP, Maciejewski J, Radivoyevitch T, Chung A, Ooi LL, Tan YM, Cheow PC, Chow P, Chan CY, Lim KH, Yerian L, Hsi E, Toh HC^, Saunthararajah Y. GATA4 loss of function in liver cancer impedes precursor to hepatocyte transition. J Clin Invest. 2017 Sep 1;127(9):3527-3542. doi: 10.1172/JCI93488. Epub 2017 Jul 31. PMID: 28758902; PMCID: PMC5669578. (^joint senior and co-corresponding author)

• *Chew V, Lai L, Pan L, Lim CJ, Li J, Ong R, Chua C, Leong JY, Lim KH, Toh HC, Lee SY, Chan CY, Goh BKP, Chung A, Chow PKH, Albani S. Delineation of an immunosuppressive gradient in hepatocellular carcinoma using high-dimensional proteomic and transcriptomic analyses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Jul 18;114(29):E5900-E5909. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1706559114. Epub 2017 Jul3.PMID:28674001;PMCID:PMC5530700.

• *Garnelo M, Tan A, Her Z, Yeong J, Lim CJ, Chen J, Lim KH, Weber A, Chow P, Chung A, Ooi LL, Toh HC, Heikenwalder M, Ng IO, Nardin A, Chen Q, Abastado JP, Chew V. Interaction between tumour-infiltrating B cells and T cells controls the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma. Gut. 2017Feb;66(2):342-351.doi:10.1136/gutjnl2015 310814.Epub2015Dec15310814.Epub2015Dec15.PMID:26669617;PMCID:PMC5284473

• *Tai WM, Yong WP, Lim C, Low LS, Tham CK, Koh TS, Ng QS, Wang WW, Wang LZ, Hartano S, Thng CH, Huynh H, Lim KT, Toh HC, Goh BC, Choo SP. A phase Ib study of selumetinib (AZD6244, ARRY-142886) in combination with sorafenib in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Ann Oncol. 2016 Dec;27(12):2210-2215. doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdw415. Epub 2016 Sep 28. Erratum in: Ann Oncol. 2018 Feb 1;29(2):526. PMID: 27681866.

• *Cainap C, Qin S, Huang WT, Chung IJ, Pan H, Cheng Y, Kudo M, Kang YK, Chen PJ, Toh HC, Gorbunova V, Eskens FA, Qian J, McKee MD, Ricker JL, Carlson DM, El-Nowiem S. Linifanib versus Sorafenib in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: results of a randomized phase III trial. J Clin Oncol. 2015 Jan 10;33(2):172-9. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2013.54.3298. Epub 2014 Dec 8. Erratum in: J Clin Oncol. 2017 Aug 1;35(22):2590.PMID:25488963;PMCID:PMC4279237.

• Soon SS, Chia WK, Chan ML, Ho GF, Jian X, Deng YH, Tan CS, Sharma A, Segelov E, Mehta S, Ali R, Toh HC, Wee HL. Cost-effectiveness of aspirin adjuvant therapy in early stage colorectal cancer in older patients. PLoS One. 2014 Sep 24;9(9):e107866. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0107866. PMID: 25250815; PMCID: PMC4176715.

• Zhu D, Chen C, Purwanti YI, Du S, Lam DH, Wu C, Zeng J, Toh HC, Wang S. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem cells transduced with baculovirus encoding CD40 ligand for immunogene therapy in mouse models of breast cancer. Hum Gene Ther. 2014 Aug;25(8):747-58. doi: 10.1089/hum.2013.160. Epub 2014 Jun 20. PMID: 24773154.

• *Chia WK, Teo M, Wang WW, Lee B, Ang SF, Tai WM, Chee CL, Ng J, Kan R, Lim WT, Tan SH, Ong WS, Cheung YB, Tan EH, Connolly JE, Gottschalk S, Toh HC. Adoptive T-cell transfer and chemotherapy in the first-line treatment of metastatic and/or locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Mol Ther. 2014 Jan;22(1):132-9. doi: 10.1038/mt.2013.242. Epub 2013 Oct 17. PMID: 24297049; PMCID: PMC3978790.

• *Bard-Chapeau EA, Nguyen AT, Rust AG, Sayadi A, Lee P, Chua BQ, New LS, de Jong J, Ward JM, Chin CK, Chew V, Toh HC, Abastado JP, Benoukraf T, Soong R, Bard FA, Dupuy AJ, Johnson RL, Radda GK, Chan EC, Wessels LF, Adams DJ, Jenkins NA, Copeland NG. Transposon mutagenesis identifies genes driving hepatocellular carcinoma in a chronic hepatitis B mouse model. Nat Genet. 2014 Jan;46(1):24-32. doi: 10.1038/ng.2847. Epub 2013 Dec 8. PMID: 24316982; PMCID: PMC4131144.

• *Wang WW, Ang SF, Kumar R, Heah C, Utama A, Tania NP, Li H, Tan SH, Poo D, Choo SP, Chow WC, Tan CK, Toh HC. Identification of serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and prolactin as potential tumor markers in hepatocellular carcinoma. PLoS One. 2013 Jul 18;8(7):e68904. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068904. PMID: 23874805; PMCID: PMC3715515.

• Phang RZ, Tay FC, Goh SL, Lau CH, Zhu H, Tan WK, Liang Q, Chen C, Du S, Li Z, Tay JC, Wu C, Zeng J, Fan W, Toh HC, Wang S. Zinc finger nuclease-expressing baculoviral vectors mediate targeted genome integration of reprogramming factor genes to facilitate the generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2013 Dec;2(12):935-45. doi: 10.5966/sctm.2013-0043. Epub 2013 Oct 28. PMID: 24167318; PMCID: PMC3841088.

• Mahfouz RZ, Koh LS, Teo M, Chee CL, Toh HC, Saunthararajah Y. Gender, cytidine deaminase, and 5-aza/decitabine--response. Clin Cancer Res. 2013 Jun 1;19(11):3106-7. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-13-0872. Epub 2013 May 8. PMID: 23658457; PMCID: PMC4122236.

• *Choo SP, Chowbay B, Ng QS, Thng CH, Lim C, Hartono S, Koh TS, Huynh H, Poon D, Ang MK, Chang S, Toh HC. A Phase 1 dose-finding and pharmacodynamic study of rapamycin in combination with bevacizumab in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Eur J Cancer. 2013 Mar;49(5):999-1008. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2012.11.008. Epub 2012 Dec 19. PMID: 23265712.

• *Toh HC, Chen PJ, Carr BI, Knox JJ, Gill S, Ansell P, McKeegan EM, Dowell B, Pedersen M, Qin Q, Qian J, Scappaticci FA, Ricker JL, Carlson DM, Yong WP. Phase 2 trial of linifanib (ABT-869) in patients with unresectable or metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer. 2013 Jan 15;119(2):380-7. doi: 10.1002/cncr.27758. Epub 2012 Jul 25. PMID: 22833179.

• Ho IA, Toh HC, Ng WH, Teo YL, Guo CM, Hui KM, Lam PY. Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells suppress human glioma growth through inhibition of angiogenesis. Stem Cells. 2013 Jan;31(1):146-55. doi: 10.1002/stem.1247. PMID: 23034897.

• *Chew V, Tow C, Huang C, Bard-Chapeau E, Copeland NG, Jenkins NA, Weber A, Lim KH, Toh HC, Heikenwalder M, Ng IO, Nardin A, Abastado JP. Toll-like receptor 3 expressing tumor parenchyma and infiltrating natural killer cells in hepatocellular carcinoma patients. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012 Dec 5;104(23):1796-807. doi: 10.1093/jnci/djs436. Epub 2012 Nov 29. PMID: 23197495; PMCID: PMC3814220.

• *Ang SF, Tan SH, Toh HC, Poon DY, Ong SY, Foo KF, Choo SP. Activity of thalidomide and capecitabine in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Am J Clin Oncol. 2012 Jun;35(3):222-7. doi: 10.1097/COC.0b013e31820dbf56. PMID: 21378539.

• Zeng J, Shahbazi M, Wu C, Toh HC, Wang S. Enhancing immunostimulatory function of human embryonic stem cell-derived dendritic cells by CD1d overexpression. J Immunol. 2012 May 1;188(9):4297-304. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1102343. Epub 2012 Mar 9. PMID: 22407918.

• Yang J, Lam DH, Goh SS, Lee EX, Zhao Y, Tay FC, Chen C, Du S, Balasundaram G, Shahbazi M, Tham CK, Ng WH, Toh HC, Wang S. Tumor tropism of intravenously injected human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem cells and their gene therapy application in a metastatic breast cancer model. Stem Cells. 2012 May;30(5):1021-9. doi: 10.1002/stem.1051. Retraction in: Stem Cells. 2019 Nov;37(11):1492. PMID: 22311724.

• *Chia WK, Wang WW, Teo M, Tai WM, Lim WT, Tan EH, Leong SS, Sun L, Chen JJ, Gottschalk S, Toh HC. A phase II study evaluating the safety and efficacy of an adenovirus-ΔLMP1-LMP2 transduced dendritic cell vaccine in patients with advanced metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Ann Oncol. 2012 Apr;23(4):997-1005. doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdr341. Epub 2011 Aug 4. PMID: 21821548; PMCID: PMC3314324.

• *Chew V, Chen J, Lee D, Loh E, Lee J, Lim KH, Weber A, Slankamenac K, Poon RT, Yang H, Ooi LL, Toh HC, Heikenwalder M, Ng IO, Nardin A, Abastado JP. Chemokine-driven lymphocyte infiltration: an early intratumoural event determining long-term survival in resectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Gut. 2012 Mar;61(3):427-38. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2011-300509. Epub 2011 Sep 19. PMID: 21930732; PMCID: PMC3273680.

• Ali R, Toh HC, Chia WK; ASCOLT Trial Investigators. The utility of Aspirin in Dukes C and High Risk Dukes B Colorectal cancer--the ASCOLT study: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2011 Dec 14;12:261. doi: 10.1186/1745-6215-12-261. PMID: 22168568; PMCID: PMC3271983.

• *Huynh H, Choo SP, Toh HC, Tai WM, Chung AY, Chow PK, Ong R, Soo KC. Comparing the efficacy of sunitinib with sorafenib in xenograft models of human hepatocellular carcinoma: mechanistic explanation. Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2011 Oct;11(8):944-53. doi: 10.2174/156800911797264716. PMID: 21834756.

• *Toh HC, Chia WK, Sun L, Thng CH, Soe Y, Phoon YP, Yap SP, Lim WT, Tai WM, Hee SW, Tan SH, Leong SS, Tan EH. Graft-vs-tumor effect in patients with advanced nasopharyngeal cancer treated with nonmyeloablative allogeneic PBSC transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2011 Apr;46(4):573-9. doi: 10.1038/bmt.2010.161. Epub 2010 Jul 26. PMID: 20661236; PMCID: PMC3072519.

• *Chew V, Tow C, Teo M, Wong HL, Chan J, Gehring A, Loh M, Bolze A, Quek R, Lee VK, Lee KH, Abastado JP, Toh HC^, Nardin A. Inflammatory tumour microenvironment is associated with superior survival in hepatocellular carcinoma patients. J Hepatol. 2010 Mar;52(3):370-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2009.07.013. Epub 2009 Aug 3. PMID: 19720422. (^senior and co corresponding author)

• *Toh HC, Wang WW, Chia WK, Kvistborg P, Sun L, Teo K, Phoon YP, Soe Y, Tan SH, Hee SW, Foo KF, Ong S, Koo WH, Zocca MB, Claesson MH. Clinical Benefit of Allogeneic Melanoma Cell Lysate-Pulsed Autologous Dendritic Cell Vaccine in MAGE-Positive Colorectal Cancer Patients. Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Dec 15;15(24):7726-7736. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-09-1537. PMID: 19996212.

• Ong KW, Teo M, Lee V, Ong D, Lee A, Tan CS, Vathsala A, Toh HC. Expression of EBV latent antigens, mammalian target of rapamycin, and tumor suppression genes in EBV-positive smooth muscle tumors: clinical and therapeutic implications. Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Sep 1;15(17):5350-8. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-08-2979. Epub 2009 Aug 25. PMID: 19706821.

• Toh HC, Sun L, Soe Y, Wu Y, Phoon YP, Chia WK, Wu J, Wong KY, Tan P. G-CSF induces a potentially tolerant gene and immunophenotype profile in T cells in vivo. Clin Immunol. 2009 Jul;132(1):83-92. doi: 10.1016/j.clim.2009.03.509. Epub 2009 Apr 2. PMID: 19345152.

• Koh TS, Thng CH, Hartono S, Lee PS, Choo SP, Poon DY, Toh HC, Bisdas S. Dynamic contrast-enhanced CT imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis: feasibility of a prolonged dual-phase imaging protocol with tracer kinetics modeling. Eur Radiol. 2009 May;19(5):1184-96. doi: 10.1007/s00330-008-1252-y. Epub 2009 Jan 10. PMID: 19137312.

• *Chia WK, Ong S, Toh HC, Hee SW, Choo SP, Poon DY, Tay MH, Tan CK, Koo WH, Foo KF. Phase II trial of gemcitabine in combination with cisplatin in inoperable or advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2008 Jul;37(7):554-8. PMID: 18695766.

• *Huynh H, Chow PK, Palanisamy N, Salto-Tellez M, Goh BC, Lee CK, Somani A, Lee HS, Kalpana R, Yu K, Tan PH, Wu J, Soong R, Lee MH, Hor H, Soo KC, Toh HC, Tan P. Bevacizumab and rapamycin induce growth suppression in mouse models of hepatocellular carcinoma. J Hepatol. 2008 Jul;49(1):52-60. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2008.02.022. Epub 2008 Apr 28. PMID: 18490075.

• Toh HC, McAfee SL, Sackstein R, Multani P, Cox BF, Garcia-Carbonero R, Colby C, Spitzer TR.High-dose cyclophosphamide + carboplatin and interleukin-2 (IL-2) activated autologous stem cell transplantation followed by maintenance IL-2 therapy in metastatic breast carcinoma - a phase II study. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2000 Jan;25(1):19-24. doi: 10.1038/sj.bmt.1702091

• *Kraus AB, Shaffer J, Toh HC, Preffer F, Dombkowski D, Saidman S, Colby C, George R, McAfee S, Sackstein R, Dey B, Spitzer TR, Sykes M. Early host CD8 T-cell recovery and sensitized anti-donor interleukin-2-producing and cytotoxic T-cell responses associated with marrow graft rejection following nonmyeloablative allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Exp Hematol. 2003 Jul;31(7):609-21. doi: 10.1016/s0301-472x(03)00082-1. PMID: 12842706.

• You Z, Huang X, Hester J, Toh HC, Chen SY. Targeting dendritic cells to enhance DNA vaccine potency. Cancer Res. 2001 May 1;61(9):3704-11. PMID: 11325842.

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Research Trials

· PI: A phase Ib clinical trial of surgically resected HCC - following neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment with an anti-PD1 checkpoint inhibitor drug pembrolizumab

 ·  Co-PI: A phase II clinical trial to test the therapeutic efficacy of an autologous cancer-specific neoantigen dendritic cell vaccine (NeoAg-DC) combined with anti-PD1 drug nivolumab in improving the relapse-free survival (RFS) in patients with resected HCC and liver metastases from colorectal cancer (CRLM) patients

· Study Chair and Coordinating PI : A Multicentre, Randomized, Open-Label, Phase III Clinical Trial Of Gemcitabine And Carboplatin Followed By Epstein-Barr Virus-Specific Autologous Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Versus Gemcitabine And Carboplatin As First Line Treatment For Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients (as Tessa Therapeutics Ltd Chief Medical Officer during that trial period)

· Study Chair and co-lead PI : Aspirin for Dukes C and High Risk Dukes B Colorectal Cancers - An International, Multi-Center, Double Blind, Randomized Placebo Controlled Phase III Trial

· PI: First-in-Human Phase I Trial of Ad-sig-hMUC-1/ecdCD40L Vector Vaccine for Immunotherapy of Epithelial Cancers

· PI: Phase II Trial Evaluating Efficacy of a Strategy Employing Combination Gemcitabine and Carboplatin Chemotherapy Followed by EBV-Specific Cytotoxic T-Lymphocytes in Patients With Metastatic or Locally Recurrent EBV-Positive Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

· Study Chair: Phase II Clinical Trial of Tumour Vaccination By Intradermal Delivery of Autologous Dendritic Cells Transduced With Adenoviral Vector (AD5F35) Expressing Latent Membrane Protein-1 (LMP-1) and Latent Membrane Protein-2 (LMP-2) Genes in Combination With Celecoxib in Patient With Metastatic Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

· Co-PI: A Phase I Study of Rapamycin in Combination with Bevacizumab in Patients With Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma

· PI: Phase II Allogeneic non-myeloablative conditioning and delayed donor leukocyte infusions (DLI) for HLA matched and 1-antigen mismatched peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) for chemorefractory nasopharyngeal carcinoma (First-in-Man)

· PI: Prospective phase II clinical trial of vaccination with autologous dendritic cells loaded with lysate of allogenic melanoma cells (MelCancerVac) for treatment of patients with advanced colorectal cancer

· PI (site) Abbott: An open-label, phase 2 study of efficacy and tolerability of ABT-869 in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

· PI (site) Roche: Modified-dose capecitabine (Xeloda) plus Bevacizumab (Avastin) for the treatment of advanced or metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): A phase II, single-arm study

· PI (site) CTRG: A phase I/II study of PXD101 in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma with pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation