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Canagliflozin, Dapagliflozin, Empagliflozin

Drug Class: Commonly Known As: Category:
SGLT2 inhibitors Invokana, Forxiga, Jardiance Adult

Canagliflozin, Dapagliflozin, Empagliflozin - What is it for

  • Belongs to a group of "blood-glucose lowering drugs" for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (Noninsulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus, NIDDM) as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control. It works on your kidney to increase the amount of sugar remove from your body in the urine and thus reduces the amount of sugar in blood

  • May be used alongside with other medications used for diabetes mellitus in order to achieve maximal glucose control for your condition

Canagliflozin, Dapagliflozin, Empagliflozin - Side Effects, Precautions, and Contraindications

What side effects can Canagliflozin, Dapagliflozin, Empagliflozin cause?

  • While most medicines can cause unwanted side effects, not everyone experiences them. These side effects often improve as the body adjusts to the new medication but if any of the following persist or become bothersome, consult your doctor or pharmacist.

  • Due to the removal of the sugar through urination by the new medication, these medicines may cause the following side effects.

Common SGLT2 inhibitors side-effectsWhat should I do when I experience this?
Low blood pressure due to dehydration (from increased loss of fluid)Maintain hydration by drinking recommended amount of fluids each day

​Urinary tract infections

Symptoms suggestive of infection include burning sensation when urinating, frequent increased urge to urinate, unusual smelling or cloudy urine, blood in urine, pain in lower abdomen or back, fever or chills

Consult a doctor to seek appropriate treatment
​Genital yeast infections of penis or vagina

Symptoms suggestive of infection include irritation, itching, unusual discharge or odour
Consult a pharmacist for an appropriate treatment. Do inform your doctor if you have such repeated infections

​Symptoms of low blood sugar
e.g. shaking, sweating, feeling very anxious, fast heart beat; feeling hungry, headache, change in vision; a change in your mood or feeling confused.

​Consume half a glass of fruit juice or a drink dissolved with a tablespoon of sugar. As the symptoms resolve, follow up with a small snack to correct the low blood sugar. Inform your healthcare provider if these episodes occur frequently.


  • Very rarely, this medication may cause:
    • An increase the levels of ketones in your blood, that can lead to a serious condition called diabetic ketoacidosis. Symptoms of ketoacidosis include sweet breath, difficulty breathing, extreme thirst, frequent urination, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, confusion, unusual fatigue or sleepiness
    • another rare but serious bacterial skin infection involving the genital areas. Symptoms include tenderness, redness or swelling of the genitals, or the area from the genitals back to the rectum along with fever (above 38°C)
  • Consult your doctor if you experience any of the abovementioned signs or symptoms of ketoacidosis/ skin infection.

Before taking Canagliflozin, Dapagliflozin, Empagliflozin, what precautions must I follow?

  • Inform your doctor
    • If you are allergic to either of the SGLT2 inhibitors – Canagliflozin, Dapagliflozin, Empagliflozin
    • if you are pregnant, planning to conceive or if you are breast-feeding
    • if you have type 1 diabetes mellitus
  • It is important for you to take care of the skin on your lower limbs and report any sores or signs of infections to your healthcare professionals. If an ulcer is left untreated and worsen, it may put you at risk of amputation

What food or medicine must I avoid when I take Canagliflozin, Dapagliflozin, Empagliflozin?

Canagliflozin, Dapagliflozin, Empagliflozin - Dosage and How to Use

How should Canagliflozin, Dapagliflozin, Empagliflozin be used?

  • For Empagliflozin or Dapagliflozin: Take once daily with or without food
  • For Canagliflozin only: To be taken at least 30 minutes before the first food or drink (other than water) of the day

What should I do if I miss a dose?

  • If you miss a dose, take the missed dose as soon as you remember
  • If it is almost time for your next dose, take only the usual dose as scheduled
  • Do not take two doses together or on the same day to make up for a forgotten dose

What should I do if I overdose?

Canagliflozin, Dapagliflozin, Empagliflozin - Handling

How should I handle Canagliflozin, Dapagliflozin, Empagliflozin safely?

Canagliflozin, Dapagliflozin, Empagliflozin - Storage

How should I store Canagliflozin, Dapagliflozin, Empagliflozin?

Keep away from children;#Keep in a cool, dry place, away from direct sunlight;#

How should I dispose of Canagliflozin, Dapagliflozin, Empagliflozin safely?

Canagliflozin, Dapagliflozin, Empagliflozin - Additional Information

  • Keep your medicines in a cool, dry place.
  • Store medicine in the original packaging or container.
  • Do not keep different types of medicine together in one container.
  • Keep all medication out of reach of children
  • Updated on Monday, January 7, 2019
  • Article contributed by Department of Pharmacy National Heart Centre Singapore

    The information provided is not intended as medical advice. Terms of use. Information provided by SingHealth

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