PFO can be diagnosed through an echocardiogram (ultrasound imaging test of the heart). Sometimes, a “bubble test” may be required during an echocardiogram to confirm the presence of a PFO.
Some studies suggest that PFO may be present in as high as 27% of the population. It is diagnosed on transthoracic and transoesphageal echocardiography with demonstrable significant right to left shunting (evidence for blood going from right to left chambers).
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